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A warrantless search at a traffic stop

Your Legal Rights and a Warrantless Search of Your Vehicle

When Can the Police Search My Vehicle? Must I Consent?

You are driving on Richmond Street in Painesville when the red and blue lights of a police vehicle begin to flash behind you. An officer approaches your vehicle, asks you a series of questions, concluding with whether you consent to a warrantless search of your vehicle.  

Must I consent? The definitive answer to that question is, NO.

If you consent to police searching your vehicle, you are giving them fairly broad latitude to search your car. The officer will point to your agreement to substantiate their invasive vehicle search. While there may be other legal grounds in which an officer can search your car without your consent, providing them with consent may effectively waive your right to be free from an unreasonable search and seizure.

The 4th Amendment and Vehicles

The 4th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution protects people from warrantless searches and seizures. And like our residences, a person has a reasonable expectation of privacy in their vehicle.

However, due to the inherent mobility of vehicles and the possibility of evidence being destroyed quickly, the Courts have carved out a number of exceptions to the requirement of a warrant when it comes to searching vehicles.

Exceptions to the rule

Probable cause

The first major exception is where the officer has probable cause (specific, articulable facts) to believe the vehicle contains contraband or evidence of a crime. Probable cause will certainly exist in situations where contraband can be seen in plain view, but something as simple as the odor of marijuana can also provide probable cause to search your vehicle.

Reasonable suspicion

Second, an officer may perform a frisk of your person as well as those areas within your reach if he has a reasonable suspicion (more than a hunch, but less than probable cause) that you have a weapon.

Placed under arrest

Third, if you are placed under arrest for a traffic infraction or other crime, an officer is justified in searching your person and immediate surroundings prior to placing you in his cruiser.  If your vehicle is towed or seized as part of that arrest, the police are permitted to conduct an inventory search of the vehicle after that seizure.

Consent

And lastly, even in the absence of the aforementioned situations, the police may search your vehicle if you provide them consent to search the vehicle.

Even if you feel the police are going to search your vehicle anyway, providing them with consent can eliminate any potential issues that led to their suspicion of criminal activity in the first place.

Taking Steps to Get Illegally-Obtained Evidence Thrown Out

It is the State’s burden to prove that they were justified in performing a warrantless search of your vehicle.

Under the “fruit of the poisonous tree” doctrine, if they are unable to establish the necessary legal facts that led to the warrantless search, any evidence that was discovered may be ruled inadmissible in a trial.  

However, in order to achieve such a ruling, you must first file a motion with the Court challenging the potential admission of illegally obtained evidence.

Have Questions About Your Legal Rights After a Warrantless Search of Your Vehicle? Speak to an Ohio Criminal Defense Attorney

If you were pulled over and the officer conducted a warrantless search of your vehicle, now is the time to consult with an experienced criminal defense attorney to determine if your Constitutional Rights were violated.  It can make the difference between dismissal and conviction.

The information presented in this post is not legal advice and does not form a lawyer/client relationship. 

Laws and circumstances can differ and change. Please contact us for a personal review of your situation

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